S


sans serif
A typeface in which the characters have no serifs (short lines or ornaments at the upper or lower end of character strokes). A sans serif typeface usually has a straightforward, geometric appearance. See also serif.
saturation
The amount of gray in a color. More gray in a color means lower saturation; less gray means higher saturation.
scalable font
Any font that can be scaled to produce characters of varying sizes.
scale
To size proportionally.
scanned image
The result when a photograph, slide, paper image, or other two- or three-dimensional image is converted to digital format.
scanner
An electronic device that digitizes and converts photographs, slides, paper images, or other two-dimensional images into bitmapped images.
schematic
A diagram that shows a circuit's components and the connections between them.
scissoring
Another name for clipping.
score
Crease with a dull rule in preparation for folding.
scratch
A memory region or a file used by a program as a place to keep work in progress. Many Screen RIPs and conversion products use scratch files during processing.
screen
A pattern of dots used to reproduce color or grayscale continuous-tone images. Screens are produced by photographing the original artwork through an actual screen of fine lines. The fineness of the screen can vary from 65 lines to 150 or more lines per inch. Sixty-five- to eighty-five-line screens are used for printing on newsprint. Better paper can accommodate finer line screens. See also AM screening, FM screening, and halftone.
screen angle
The degree of rotation at which a halftone screen is printed. Each element in a four-color separation must be photographed through a screen that has been placed at a specific angle to eliminate moirè patterns when the colors are superimposed. Black is normally shot at 45 degrees, magenta at 75 degrees, cyan at 105 degrees, and yellow at 90 degrees. Precise registration is required.
screen dump
A copy of the computer screen, taken by copying video memory or main memory and then converted to an image file. Also called a snapshot.
screen font
A bitmap representation of a font used to display characters on the screen.
screen frequency
The density of dots on the halftone screen, commonly measured in lines per inch (lpi).
script
A type of program that consists of a set of instructions to an application or utility program. A script usually consists of instructions expressed using the application's or utility's rules and syntax, combined with simple control structures such as loop and if/then statements.
scroll
To move a document or directory in its window so that a different part of it is visible. To scroll a window, use the scroll arrows, scroll bars, or scroll boxes found along the side or bottom of the window.
SCSI (pronounced "scuzzy")
Small Computer System Interface. A specification of mechanical, electrical, and functional standards for connecting peripheral devices such as hard disks and printers to small computers.
SCSI chain
A group of SCSI devices linked to one another through SCSI peripheral cables and linked to the SCSI port on the computer through a SCSI system cable.
SCSI port
The socket on the back panel of a computer to which a SCSI device may be connected.
SCSI terminator
A device used in a SCSI chain to maintain the integrity of the signals going through the chain. With some devices, this terminator is built in.
secondary color
A color created from mixing two primary colors. Cyan, magenta, and yellow are secondary colors to red, green, and blue, and vice versa. See primary color.
select
To designate which object will receive the next action. Selecting is usually done by clicking or dragging with the mouse cursor to highlight the object. See also choose.
selection
A highlighted object or portion of text on the computer screen.
semantics
The relationship between words or symbols and their intended meanings. Semantic rules apply to spoken and written languages as well as programming languages. See also syntax.
serial
One by one.
serial communications
The transmission of information between computers and peripheral devices one bit at a time over a single line. Serial communications may be synchronous (controlled by a timer or clock) or asynchronous (managed by control signals that govern the flow of information).
serial port
The connector for a peripheral device that receives information in a serial format (one bit at a time).
serif
Any of the short lines or ornaments at the upper or lower ends of the strokes that form a character in a typeface. Also, a typeface whose characters contain serifs. See also sans serif.
server
On a local area network, a computer running administrative software that controls access to all or part of the network and its resources.
set solid
Type set without extra space between lines.
shade
Color resulting from adding black pigment to a pure hue.
shadow
The darkest part of an image, represented in the halftone by the largest dots.
shared resource
Any device, data, or program whose contents or operation can be shared over a network by a number of users. Shared resources can include shared disks, shared directories or folders, and shared hardware devices like network printers.
shareware
Copyrighted software that is usually freely distributed along with a request for a small payment from satisfied users.
sheet feeder
A device that accepts a stack of paper and feeds it to a printer one page at a time.
shell
A piece of software, usually a separate program, that provides direct communication between the user and the operating system. The Macintosh Finder and the MS-DOS COMMAND.COM are examples of shells.
show through
Printing on one side of the paper that can be seen on the other.
sidebar
A block of text placed to the side of the main text body in a document, often set off by a border, colored background, or other graphic element.
Sigmagraph
A color electronic prepress system (CEPS) manufactured by Screen.
signal
Any electrical quantity, such as voltage, current, or frequency, that can be used to transmit information.
signature
Folded press sheet consisting of 4, 8, 12, 16, or 32 pages.
silhouette
A photograph from which background image has been removed, outlining the subject.
silica gel
A desiccant (moisture absorbent) often packaged with electronic equipment or any other item that may be adversely affected by moisture.
single in-line memory module (SIMM)
A small circuit board designed to accommodate surface-mount memory chips.
sinkage
Extra white space at the top of a page, usually for a title page or the first page of a chapter.
skew
To slant an object by a prescribed degree.
slave
Any device that is under the control of another device. The device that controls slave devices is called a master.
sleeve
An envelope for a floppy disk.
slitter
Machine for cutting rolls of paper lengthwise.
slot
Expansion slot. A socket inside a computer console designed to hold expansion boards and connect them to the system bus.
small caps
A font of capital letters that are slightly smaller than the standard capital letters in that typeface.
Small Computer System Interface
See SCSI.
smoothing
The adjusting of a bitmap image by rounding the jagged edges to give them a more uniform look.
smoothness
Flatness of a sheet of paper, which affects the resolution of the printed image.
snap
A drawing feature that causes objects to align with an invisible grid when created, moved, resized, or rotated.
snap grid
An invisible grid to which an object snaps when you create, move, resize, or rotate it.
snapshot
A screen dump. A copy of the video screen, taken by copying video memory or main memory and then converted to an image file.
soft copy
The temporary images presented on a computer display screen. See also hard copy.
soft font
A downloadable font.
soft patch
A fix or modification of a computer program that is performed only when the code being patched is loaded into memory. See patch.
soft return
A line break inserted in a document that only takes effect when the word following the soft return would extend into the page margin.
software
Computer program or programs that cause the computer to work. Software can be divided into categories derived from the type of work generated: operating systems, applications, network, languages, and utilities.
software RIP
A computer application that can be installed on an existing computer to convert PostScript files to high-resolution bitmapped images. The computer needs a recorder to output these images. See also hardware RIP and software RIP with hardware components.
software RIP with hardware components
Similar to a software RIP, but with enhancements for the computer, like a special interface or accelerator card. See also hardware RIP and software RIP.
solarization
A photographic effect in which the image combines positive and negative areas, Solarization can be accomplished by exposing the film to light during processing or by using retouching software.
solidus
A diagonal slash (/).
source code
Human-readable program statements written in high-level or assembly language. Compare object code.
source document
The original document from which data is taken.
Spacebar
The long key in the bottom row of most keyboards that sends a space character to the computer.
space character
An invisible character entered by pressing the Spacebar. The main purpose of this character is to separate words in a sentence from each other.
spanner
In a table, a column head with subheads beneath it.
SPARC
Scalar Processor Architecture. A RISC microprocessor from Sun Microsystems. See also RISC.
Spectrophotometer
An instrument used to measure energy in a sample of light or pigmented surface.
spiral binding
Mechanical binding using a single wire passing through pre-drilled holes.
spline
In computer graphics, a curve calculated by a mathematical function that connects separate points with a high degree of smoothness.
spot
A composite dot created through the halftoning process. A spot is composed of a group of dots arranged in a pattern reflecting the gray level of a pixel to be drawn at a particular location.
spot color
A special ink added to a job as a solid color rather than a combination of the four process colors. When the job is color separated, each spot color has its own separation.
spot function
A PostScript function used to create a given type of screen in a halftone.
spread
(1) Two or more adjacent pages. (2) A color trapping option in which a color object is slightly enlarged when printed in order to overlap the knockout area with the background.
sprite
In computer graphics, a small image that can be moved independently of other images in the background. Sprites are drawn within a block of pixels that can be manipulated as a unit within a computer's video memory so that they seem to move rapidly across the screen. Sprites are used extensively in video arcade games and animation sequences.
stacking order
The order in which text and graphics overlap in a page layout program.
stairstep
The jagged appearance of a graphic line or curve when reproduced using pixels. Also called jaggies.
Starplexer
SPX. A component of the Alphapro system that contains storage disks.
star targets
The printed pinwheels, used primarily in printing color separations, to align the different plates and to measure dot doubling, grain, and slurring during printing.
start bit
In asynchronous transmission, the bit that signals the beginning of a character.
static electricity/static discharge
An electrical charge accumulated in an object that may be discharged when the object comes in contact with a conductor. This charge is called static because there is no flow of electrons in a circuit while the charge is accumulating. The discharge of static electricity is usually harmless to people but can damage electronic circuits in computer components.
stick-up cap
An enlarged initial letter extending above the body text; often used to grab attention at the beginning of a story or chapter.
storage/storage device
Any physical device or location used to maintain computer data.
strikethrough
One or more lines drawn through a range of text. This is often used in electronic text editing to indicate text that is to be deleted at some future time.
stripping
The assembling of all photographic negatives or positives necessary to create a printing plate of the entire page. Halftones and color separations are often stripped into the film created from an electronically assembled page.
stroke
A line representing part of a letter or other type character.
stub
The left-hand column of a table.
style
A variation of a typeface, such as bold or italic.
style sheet
A file of instructions used to apply character, paragraph, and page formats to a document.
stylus
A pen-like pointing device, usually attached to a grphics tablet.
subscript
A character printed smaller than standard text and positioned slightly below the baseline; commonly used in mathematical and chemical notation.
substance
The basis weight of certain grades of paper. For example, 20 lb bond is also called substance 20 or sub 20.
substrate
In printing, a substance to which an ink or pigment is permanently transferred, such as paper or acetate.
subtractive color primaries
The primary colors used in pigments and printing: cyan, magenta, and yellow. See additive color primaries.
subtractive color mixing
The process of mixing pigments to create new, darker colors that further reduce (subtract from) the reflection of light from the paper surface.
superscript
A character printed smaller than standard text and positioned slightly above the baseline of the surrounding text; commonly used in reference citation and mathematical and technical notation.
super-user
An alternate name for the user of the root login account in some UNIX systems. The super-user may be the system administrator.
surprint
To print one image or color over another.
synchronize
To align the baselines of body paragraphs along a page grid.
synchronous transmission
Data transfer in which information is sent in blocks (frames) of bits separated by equal time intervals (controlled by the coordination of the clocks of the sending and receiving devices). See asynchronous transmission.
syntax
The grammar of a particular language. See also semantics.
system
Any collection of component elements that work together to perform a task. In computing, system can refer to hardware components or software programs.
system administrator
The person responsible for setting up, maintaining, and troubleshooting a multiuser computer and/or communications system. The system administrator performs such tasks as assigning user accounts and passwords, establishing security access levels, allocating storage space, and preventing unauthorized access to the system.
system crash
When a computer operating system fails and the system will not accept any user input.
system disk
A floppy disk or hard disk that contains an operating system and is capable of being used to start a computer.
system failure
The inability of a computer to continue functioning.
System file
A resource file on the Apple Macintosh that contains resources needed by the operating system including fonts, icons, and dialog boxes.
System folder
The Macintosh file folder (directory) that contains the System file, the Finder (shell), system extensions, device drivers, Control Panel files, font files, and so on.
system software
The operating system of a computer.


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Copyright© 1997 by Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Last modified on August 4, 1997.