C


C1S
Paper or cover stock coated on one side.
C2S
Paper or cover stock coated on both sides.
calender
To smooth the surface of paper with polished rollers.
calibration
With regard to recorders and imagesetters, the process of adjusting the device so it correctly reproduces the desired halftones, tints, and so on. Screen's HQ RIPs provides a procedure for calibration.
caliper
Thickness of paper, measured in points (thousandths of an inch, not typographic points).
callout
Text used to explain or identify a portion of an illustration. Also, a pull quote extracted from text and set in display type.
camera-ready
Ready to be photographed by a printer.
cap height
Height of capital letters in a typeface.
caption
The text describing a photograph or illustration.
cast
An unwanted tinge or shade of color present in an image.
centered
Aligned along a center axis.
CEPS
Color electronic prepress system. A digital color image manipulation and assembly system used in electronic color separation. Screen manufactures an assortment of high-end CEPS.
character
A letter of the alphabet, numeral, punctuation mark, space, or other typeset symbol.
channel
Information about a single process or spot color contained within an image file. An image may have up to 16 channels.
chemical pulp
Wood pulp in which the cellulose fibers have been separated chemically under heat and pressure. Fine papers are made from chemical pulp; newsprint is made from the alternative: groundwood (or mechanical) pulp.
choke
The process of overprinting a small border on graphics to make them appear smaller.
chroma
A synonym for color or hue.
chromatic color
A color with at least one hue present and a visible level of saturation.
chromaticity
A measure of the combination of both hue and saturation in color produced by lights.
choose
To give a command by dragging through a menu and releasing the mouse button when the command is highlighted. See also select.
cicero
A unit of measurement in the Didot system, commonly used in Europe. A cicero is slightly larger than a pica and is approximately 4.55 millimeters.
CIE
Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage, the international body that sets standards for illumination and developed the CIE color models.
CIE color models
A family of mathematical models that describe color in terms of hue, lightness, and saturation. The CIE color models include CIE XYZ, CIELAB, CIELUV, and CIE xyZ.
CISC (pronounced "sisk")
Complex Instruction Set Computing. A microprocessor that uses complex instructions at the assembly language level. The instructions can be very powerful, allowing for complicated and flexible ways of calculating elements. CISC microprocessor work faster than RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) microprocessors on complex instructions but are slower with simple tasks and instructions. See RISC.
clip art
Illustrations and designs collected and usually sold commercially.
clipboard
A special memory resource maintained by operating systems such as the Apple Macintosh, Microsoft Windows, and others, that stores a copy of the last block of information that was cut or copied. A paste operation passes the information on the clipboard to the current program.
clipping path
The boundary of a graphical mask (created by points and straight or curved lines) used to screen out parts of an image and expose or print other parts. Only what is inside the clipping path is displayed or printed.
CMYK
A subtractive color mixing model consisting of the four process colors used in printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. In this color model, black is created by applying 100% of each of these four colors. To arrive at other colors, certain percentages of these colors are subtracted. Subtracting 100% of each of these four colors yields white (or the color of the paper stock).
coated free sheet
Glossy paper which contains less than 25% groundwood pulp.
coated paper
Paper coated with clay and other substances to provide an enamel surface for high reflectance, good ink coverage, and sharp printed images.
collate
To assemble pages and sections of a book or other document in proper order for binding.
colophon
A notation placed in the end of a book that gives information about its production.
color
Light waves that reach the viewer's eye by transmission (through an object between the viewer and the light source) or by reflection (when light waves bounce off an object). All substances, whether transparent or opaque, absorb some wavelengths while letting others pass through or bounce off. A red apple looks red because it absorbs all colors in white light except red, which it reflects. White objects reflect all and black objects absorb all light waves (at least in theory).
color, additive
Color produced by mixing colored lights. Combining colored lights produces a lighter result because white light is composed of all the colors of the spectrum. (In other words, adding color leads to white.)
color, subtractive
Color produced by mixing pigments (such as inks or paints). Combining pigments produces a darker result. (In other words, subtracting colors leads to white.)
color bars
Rectangles of color printed on color proofs to check the ink densities, trapping, and other technical factors required to conform to quality standards.
color break(s)
Artwork prepared so as to indicate which elements print in which ink color. Copy and art for each color may be pasted on separate boards, pasted on on overlays, or indicated in pencil on an overlay sheet of tissue paper.
color conversion
Black-and-white version made from a color photograph or other original.
color correction
The adjustment of colors in any photographic, electronic, or manual process to obtain a correct image by compensating for the deficiencies of process inks, color separation, or undesired balance of the original image.
color filter
Dyed gelatin or plastic under glass, used to absorb certain colors and improve others. Blue, green, and red filters are used in making color separations.
color key
A set of four acetate overlays, each utilizing a halftone consisting of one of the four process colors used for proofing color separations.
color lookup table
A table of values, each of which corresponds to a different color that can be displayed on a computer monitor or used in an image. For example, an indexed color image uses a color lookup table of up to 256 colors.
color matching
Specifying flat colors according to numbered samples on a color chart.
color proof
Hard copy in color to check before a job is printed.
color saturation
The amount of a hue contained in a color; the greater the saturation, the more intense the color.
color separation
A file, printout, or plate created by breaking down a continuous-tone, multi-colored image into single-color components. By applying the appropriate process or spot color to each separation and then overprinting this information on the page, offset printers can reproduce the original image.
color space
A scheme of representation for color images, such as CMYK or RGB. Color are represented as a combination of a small set of other colors or by other parameters (like hue, saturation, and brightness).
color wheel
A circle that displays the spectrum of visible colors. It provides a graphic representation of the relationship between primary and secondary colors with successive color mixtures and tonal values.
column
A series of items arranged vertically within some type of framework or matrix. See row.
column rule
A thin, vertical rule separating two columns of text.
complementary color
The inverted hue of a color (the one that is diametrically opposite on a color wheel). For example, yellow is the complementary color of blue.
Complex Instruction Set Computing
See CISC.
composite file
An image file that contains all color information used to generate separations..
composite font
A special font designed to support large character sets such as Japanese or Chinese character sets.
composition
The assembly and arrangement of typeset characters into words, lines, and paragraphs.
comprehensive (or "comp")
A usually detailed production piece that shows how a finished publication will look. A comp is said to be "tight" if it closely resembles the final product or "loose" if it does not (as in a rough sketch).
condensed type
Type in which the individual characters are narrower than normal so that more characters can fit on a single line.
continued line
A line of text indicating the page on which an article continues or the carryover line on the subsequent page that identifies the story being continued. Also called a jumpline.
continuous-tone (CT) image
A color or black-and-white image, such as a photograph or a painting, that contains grandient tones from black to white.
contrast
The spread between the lightest and darkest areas of an image.
cool color
Blue or any color that is made up of a majority of blue (usually a color produced by a shorter wavelength of light).
copy-fitting
Editing text to fit a specified space.
copyright
Ownership of a work by the writer, artist, photographer, or publisher.
counter
The white space inside rounded letters such as a, e, and p.
crop
To trim the edges of a picture to make it fit or to remove unwanted portions.
crop marks
Short vertical and horizontal lines printed on a page to indicate the final trim size of a document.
CRT
Cathode ray tube. Any TV-like raster device.
curl
Distortion of paper caused by a reaction to environmental conditions. Curl can cause feeding problems in a press or electronic printer. The curl side of a piece of paper is the concave side.
cutout
A reference object found in page geometry (PG) files that represents the approximate location and shape of a continuous-tone image and its mask.
cyan
Process blue printing ink.


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Copyright© 1997 by Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Last modified on August 4, 1997.